Enhancer activates gene transcription in spatial and temporal patterns by interacting with the promoter of the gene. These elements usually Being distal targeting their promoters, which they must interact selectively. Additional elements can contribute to the enhancer-promoter specificity, including remote control sequences within enhancer elements, the withdrawal of the elements near the promoter, and the insulator / boundary element disturbing off-target interactions.

However, some elements have been mapped, and as a result, the mechanism which these elements interact remain poorly understood. One obstacle is the method of their studies, the reporter transgenes where enhancer positioned adjacent to a heterologous promoter, which may avoid a control mechanism enhancer-promoter specificity and long-term interaction. Here, we report a dual reporter system optimized transgenes in Drosophila melanogaster that allows simultaneous comparison of enhancing the ability to activate proximal and distal fluorescent reporter gene.

Testing a panel of fluorescent transgene in vivo, we found the combination of two proteins that allow simultaneous measurement with minimal interference detection. We note the differences between the four enhancer tested their ability to regulate reporter transgenes placed distally. These results indicate that the enhancers differ in their need for interaction promoter and raises important practical consideration when studying the function enhancer.

Red Light/Green Light, a Dual Fluorescent Protein Reporter System To Study Enhancer-Promoter Specificity in Drosophila.
Red Light/Green Light, a Dual Fluorescent Protein Reporter System To Study Enhancer-Promoter Specificity in Drosophila.

Fluorescent Protein Expression and Characterization of Far-red light from Pink-pigmented Network of Porites lobata.

Anthozoan member family display green fluorescent protein (GFP) diversity of the photo-physical properties that can be associated with normal tissue and damaged coral. Poritid coral species often show local pink pigmentation in diseased or damaged tissue. spectral analysis and our histological lesions Porites lobata pink-pigmented shows co-localization of a bright red fluorescence with amoebocytes allegedly concentrating on the epidermis, demonstrating the innate immune response is activated. Here we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of new red fluorescent protein (plobRFP) of pink-pigmented tissue associated with lesions on Porites lobata.

In vitro, recombinant plobRFP indicate different signals red emission of 614 nm (excitation maximum: 578 nm), making plobRFP red-shifted fluorescent protein isolated from a naturally furthest scleractinian coral. Recombinant proteins have higher molar extinction coefficient (84,000 M-1cm-1) and quantum results (0.74), it is important to negotiate brightness plobRFP. sequence analysis showed different brightness and redshift marked perhaps the inherent features of this plobRFP chromophore conformation.

While plobRFP to show a tendency to aggregate, high pH stability, photostability and spectral properties make it a candidate for cell imaging applications and the potential for optimized engineering template RFP. PlobRFP association with the immune response may furthers its potential use as a diagnostic and molecular biomarkers to monitor the health of coral visual. Self-associate split fluorescent protein (FP) FP is divided into two fragments which spontaneously associate to form a functional FP.

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They have been widely used to label proteins, protein scaffolds assembly and detecting cell-cell contacts. Recent developments have expanded palette associating themselves outside the FP split the original split GFP1-10 / 11. However, the new one has suffered from suboptimal fluorescence signal after complementation.